Dating age laws in england
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However, Athens had no legal science or single word for "law", Although codes were replaced by custom and case law during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when medieval legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts.Latin legal maxims (called brocards) were compiled for guidance.
Laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or by judges through binding precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions.
It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality.
By the 22nd century BC, the ancient Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code, which consisted of casuistic statements ("if … Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law, by codifying and inscribing it in stone.
Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae, for the entire public to see; this became known as the Codex Hammurabi.
The most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, and has since been fully transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, Italian, German, and French.
The adjudication of the law is generally divided into two main areas referred to as (i) Criminal law and (ii) Civil law.
Criminal law deals with conduct that is considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined.
The law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people.
A general distinction can be made between (a) civil law jurisdictions (including Catholic canon law and socialist law), in which the legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, and (b) common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law.
Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process.
The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein.
In medieval England, royal courts developed a body of precedent which later became the common law.