Chatraw mature - Xxx chat in kolkata
This report traces the increasing sophistication of our understanding of these relationships and their impact on susceptibility to infection through six stages to the present time.The cyclical relationship between poor nutrition, increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, leading to immunological dysfunction and metabolic responses that further alter nutritional status is described and, wherever possible, related to physiological mechanisms.
Dramatic increases in our understanding of the organization of the immune system and the factors that regulate immune function have demonstrated a remarkable and close concordance between host nutritional status and immunity.
Although it was known at that time that plasma cells were responsible for producing antibodies, there was no clear understanding of the relationship of plasma cells to the lymphocytes circulating in the blood or present in the aggregated lymphoid tissues of lymph nodes, the spleen, thymus and lymph follicles elsewhere in the body.
In fact, circulating lymphocytes were considered to be dormant resting cells, all of which looked alike and possessed no known or even suspected function.
I describe six discernible stages in the history of our knowledge of nutrition-immunity-infection interactions.
As we have learned of late, history as written by some contemporary historians is sometimes indistinguishable from plagiarism.
In the beginning it was dark, although looking back, occasional isolated points of light can be discerned before 1959.
Some of these points of light came from the epidemiological work Nevin Scrimshaw and colleagues carried out during the first 10 y of his tenure as the founding Director of the Instituto de Nutricion de Centro America y Panama (INCAP) in Guatemala.My own abiding interest in this field is a direct consequence of meeting Nevin in 1968.I was, at the time, an infectious diseases fellow in Boston, with the opportunity to take courses at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where Nevin was chair of the Department of Nutrition and Food Science; and so I registered at MIT for his course on nutrition.Although we now know there are marked similarities in the organization and function of the immune system between animals and humans, there are also significant differences, especially between humans and chickens, which were often used for studies of antibody immunity in these earlier studies.From the perspective of human nutrition, it was considered that protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), or protein-calorie malnutrition as it was then called, was attributable principally to dietary deficiency and therefore it could be prevented or treated by dietary measures alone.In this brief account of the history of this field, I acknowledge up front that I will plagiarize ideas from many who have contributed to the development of the field, many of whom are in this room today, without worrying about citations.