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Deposed and held under house arrest, Nicholas, Alexandra, and their children -- and with them the Romanov dynasty -- were exterminated by gunfire in the basement of a Yekaterinburg manor house and buried in unmarked graves which were found later and reburied in the Saint Paul and Peter Cathedral in Saint Petersburg.World War I strained Imperial Russia's governmental and social institutions to the breaking point of Revolution in 1917.
In addition to forced collectivization of agriculture and renationalisation of industries, Stalin introduced a ruthlessly centralized economic system ("socialism in one country") that rapidly industrialized the USSR.
In his years in power, Lenin used the Red Army, the internal security apparatus, and the Communist Party leadership to arrest and execute many opponents of the nascent regime, and redistribute land that have long been owned by the large land owners to peasants who work in it (Collectivisation of agriculture would not take place until 1928).
After the Civil War, Lenin adopted a New Economic Policy, which allowed certain sectors to be denationalized, as well as cancelling the practice of grain requisitioning that was widely used in wartime, as well as a loosening of political and cultural controls.
The revolutionary state was not directly ruled by the officials in titular control of the government, which was established in the name of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
The government in the commonly understood sense was largely irrelevant both in fact and in Communist theory throughout the years of Communist control.
Tsar Nicholas II and his wife, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria, proved to be feckless, weak, and distracted by personal tragedies and the burdens of the war.
The government proved unable to hold back the Russian Revolution of 1917.Official: Russianvariably recognized: Abaza, Adyghe, Aghul, Altai, Avar, Azerbaijani, Bashkir, Buryat, Chechen, Cherkess, Chuvash, Crimean Tatar, Dargwa, Erzya, Ingush, Kabardian, Kalmyk, Karachay-Balkar, Khakas, Komi, Kumyk, Lak, Lezgi, Mari, Moksha, Nogai, Ossetic, Rutul, Tabasaran, Tatar, Tsakhur, Tuvan, Udmurt, Ukrainian, Yakutalso spoken: 100 indigenous languages, English, and German Russia can't be understood by mind, Nor measured by common yardstick.Russian identity can be traced to the Middle Ages, with its first state known as Kievan Rus and its religion rooted in Byzantine Christianity adopted from Constantinople. Peter The Great established the Russian Empire in 1721, although the Romanov dynasty had been in power since 1613.Best architects from France and Italy were involved designing the city.Saint Petersburg became known as Russia's "Window on the West" and adopted the manners and style of the royal courts of western Europe, even to the point of adopting French as its preferred language.Stalin's rivals to succeed Lenin, as well as critics arising thereafter, typically ended up as victims of the purges.